360° View of Topcon Solar Technology & Why Indian PV Module Manufacturers Fear to Switch

12 min read
 Topcon Solar Technology

TOPCon (Tunnel Oxide Passivated Contact) solar technology is experiencing high demand in today's market. With its exceptional efficiency and improved performance, TOPCon technology has captured the attention of both researchers and industry professionals. The ability of TOPCon solar cells to achieve higher conversion efficiencies, surpassing traditional PERC (Passivated Emitter Rear Cell) technology, has made it an attractive option for solar panel manufacturers and investors. As the world continues to prioritize renewable energy sources, the demand for TOPCon solar technology is expected to rise further, driving innovation and advancements in this field

What is TOPCon Solar Cell Technology

Originally proposed by Fraunhofer ISE, a renowned German solar research institution, in 2014, TOPCon (Tunnel Oxide Passivated Contact) is an innovative and advanced N-type silicon cell technology. Chemical doping is employed to enhance electricity generation in both P-type and N-type cells, with the difference arising from the type of doping material utilized. Boron is used to dope P-type cells, while phosphorus is employed for N-type cells. Phosphorus offers an advantage over boron as it is not susceptible to degradation caused by oxygen, unlike boron. Furthermore, phosphorus doping introduces free electrons to the wafer, resulting in increased efficiency.

What are N-Type Solar Cells

Solar cells are semiconductor devices that consist of a p-n junction, which is the interface between a p-type region and an n-type region of a semiconductor material. In the case of an n-type solar cell, the structure involves a thin layer of p-type silicon (doped with boron) placed on top of a much thicker layer of n-type silicon (doped with phosphorus).

The n-type silicon layer contains impurities that introduce extra electrons, giving it a negative charge. On the other hand, the p-type silicon layer is doped with impurities that create "holes" or a deficiency of electrons, resulting in a positive charge. At the junction where the p-type and n-type layers meet, a built-in electric field is created due to the charge imbalance.

Structure Of TOPCon Solar Cell

TOPCon cell structure

The structure of a TOPCon (Tunnel Oxide Passivated Contact) solar cell typically consists of the following components:

Substrate: The cell starts with a silicon substrate, which serves as the foundation for the solar cell.

Base Emitter: The base-emitter layer is doped to create a p-n junction, allowing the absorption of sunlight and the generation of electron-hole pairs.

Tunnel Oxide Layer (SiO2): Positioned on top of the base-emitter, the tunnel oxide layer acts as a passivation layer. It helps in reducing surface recombination and improving the overall efficiency of the cell.

Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) Layer: On top of the tunnel oxide layer, a transparent conductive oxide layer is applied. This layer facilitates the extraction of charge carriers while allowing sunlight to pass through to reach the absorber layer.

Absorber Layer: The absorber layer is responsible for capturing solar energy and converting it into electrical energy. It typically consists of a thin layer of amorphous or crystalline silicon.

Back Contact: At the back of the cell, a back contact layer is present, which enables the extraction of electrons from the cell and completes the electrical circuit.

Anti-Reflection Coating: To minimize the reflection of sunlight, an anti-reflection coating is often applied on top of the cell. This coating helps maximize light absorption and overall efficiency.

These components work together to optimize light absorption, minimize recombination losses, and enhance the electrical performance of the TOPCon solar cell.

Similarity And Differences Between Topcon And Perc Solar Cell Structure

The TOPCon (Tunnel Oxide Passivated Contact) and PERC (Passivated Emitter Rear Cell) solar cell structures have some similarities and differences in their components and overall design:

Mono PERC & TOPcon cell Difference


  • Both TOPCon and PERC cells are based on silicon substrates, which serve as the foundation for solar cells.
  • Both cell structures include a base-emitter layer, which is doped to create a p-n junction for the absorption of sunlight.
  • Both cell designs incorporate a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer to facilitate the extraction of charge carriers.
  • Both structures may include an anti-reflection coating to minimize light reflection and maximize light absorption.


  • Passivation Layer: In TOPCon cells, there is a tunnel oxide layer that acts as a passivation layer. On the other hand, PERC cells feature a passivated emitter layer (usually made of silicon nitride) on the rear side.
  • Rear Contact: In TOPCon cells, the rear contact is typically a back contact layer, enabling electron extraction. In PERC cells, the rear contact is typically a full-area rear contact, allowing for enhanced charge collection.
  • Emitter Structure: In TOPCon cells, the emitter is typically lightly doped, while in PERC cells, the emitter is heavily doped to enhance conductivity and carrier collection.
  • Absorber Layer: The absorber layer in TOPCon cells can be either amorphous or crystalline silicon. In PERC cells, the absorber layer is typically crystalline silicon.

These differences in the structure and components of TOPCon and PERC cells contribute to variations in their performance, efficiency, and manufacturing processes. Each technology has its advantages and limitations, and its suitability depends on specific application requirements and market considerations.

Advantages of Using TOPCon Solar Technology

TOPCon (Tunnel Oxide Passivated Contact) technology offers several key advantages in the field of solar photovoltaics:

  • Higher Efficiency: TOPCon cells achieve higher conversion efficiencies by reducing surface recombination, resulting in improved overall performance.
  • Enhanced Light Absorption: The transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer in TOPCon cells allows for increased sunlight absorption, leading to higher power output.
  • Better Performance in Low Light: TOPCon cells perform well in low light conditions, making them reliable even during cloudy weather.
  • Reduced Degradation: The tunnel oxide passivation layer minimizes degradation mechanisms, resulting in slower performance degradation over time.
  • Potential for Thinner Wafers: TOPCon technology enables the use of thinner silicon wafers without compromising efficiency, reducing material costs.
  • Lower Operating Temperatures: TOPCon cells operate at lower temperatures, improving efficiency and extending their lifespan.
  • Versatility and Scalability: TOPCon technology can be integrated into existing manufacturing processes and is suitable for various applications.
  • Reduced Light Induced Degradation (LeTID): TOPCon cells are less affected by Light Induced Degradation (LeTID), enhancing their stability.
  • Reduced Recombination Losses: The tunnel oxide passivation layer in TOPCon cells effectively mitigates recombination losses at the cell's surface. This reduces the loss of electron-hole pairs, enhancing overall efficiency by improving the cell's ability to capture and convert solar energy.

In summary, TOPCon technology offers higher efficiency, better low light performance, reduced degradation, and other benefits, making it a promising solution for advancing renewable energy adoption.

Potential Drawbacks Of TOPCon Solar Technology

While TOPCon (Tunnel Oxide Passivated Contact) solar panel technology offers advantages, there are some potential disadvantages to consider:

  • Higher manufacturing costs compared to some conventional solar cell technologies.
  • Complex manufacturing process requiring specialized equipment and expertise.
  • Limited availability of materials and components specific to TOPCon technology.
  • Relatively newer technology with less established market presence and support.
  • Certification and compliance requirements may add additional time and costs.
  • Transition challenges for manufacturers accustomed to other solar cell technologies.
  • Potential need for research and development to optimize performance and efficiency.
  • Initial higher investment costs for manufacturers adopting TOPCon technology.
  • Dependence on external factors like weather conditions for energy production, similar to other solar panel technologies.
  • Potential performance degradation over time due to environmental factors and cell aging, requiring maintenance and monitoring.

These factors should be considered within the specific context of each application. As the technology advances and market demand increases, efforts to address these drawbacks are expected.

Manufacturing Processes And Techniques For Topcon Solar Cells

TOPCon solar cells offer the advantage of compatibility with existing P-type solar cell manufacturing equipment. This means that manufacturers can adopt TOPCon technology without requiring significant capital investment in new machinery. The ability to utilize the same manufacturing machines makes the production of TOPCon solar panels easier and more cost-effective, enabling large-scale manufacturing without substantial additional expenses. This compatibility facilitates the seamless integration of TOPCon technology into existing solar panel production lines, making it an attractive option for manufacturers seeking to enhance their product offerings with higher efficiency solar panels.

Market Outlook For TOPCon Solar Panels

The market outlook for TOPCon (Tunnel Oxide Passivated Contact) solar panels is promising, with significant growth potential in the coming years. Here is an overview of the market outlook for TOPCon solar panels:

Solar module delivery

Increasing Demand: The demand for high-efficiency solar panels is rising as the renewable energy sector continues to expand. TOPCon solar panels, known for their potential to achieve higher efficiencies compared to other technologies, are expected to witness increased demand from residential, commercial, and utility-scale solar installations.

Cost Competitiveness: As TOPCon technology matures and scales up in production, economies of scale and manufacturing optimization are expected to drive down the costs associated with TOPCon solar panels. This cost competitiveness will make them more attractive to end-users and further boost market demand.

Technological Advancements: Ongoing research and development efforts are focused on improving TOPCon solar panel efficiency, durability, and scalability. Advancements in materials, passivation techniques, and manufacturing processes will contribute to the overall performance and reliability of TOPCon panels, making them a preferred choice in the market.

Market Expansion: TOPCon solar panels have the potential to penetrate new market segments beyond traditional solar applications. Their compatibility with building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) and emerging technologies like electric vehicles and wearable devices opens up opportunities for TOPCon technology to be integrated into various products and applications.

Growing Global Installations: Countries worldwide are increasingly adopting renewable energy targets and incentivizing solar energy deployment. This favorable policy environment, combined with the need for higher efficiency and sustainable energy sources, will drive the installation of TOPCon solar panels in key markets, including Europe, Asia, and North America.

Industry Collaborations and Investments: Leading solar panel manufacturers, research institutions, and technology providers are investing in TOPCon solar panel production and development. Collaborative efforts are aimed at advancing the technology, optimizing manufacturing processes, and expanding the global market presence of TOPCon panels.

Market Competition: While TOPCon technology offers advantages in terms of efficiency, the market for solar panels is highly competitive. Other technologies, such as PERC (Passivated Emitter Rear Contact), continue to dominate the market. The market outlook for TOPCon solar panels will depend on their ability to demonstrate a competitive edge in terms of efficiency, performance, and cost-effectiveness.

Overall, the market outlook for TOPCon solar panels is positive, driven by increasing demand for high-efficiency solar solutions, advancements in technology, cost competitiveness, and supportive renewable energy policies. As the industry continues to innovate and optimize TOPCon technology, it is expected to gain a significant market share and contribute to the global transition towards clean and sustainable energy.

Applications of TOPcon Solar Panel Technology

The versatility and high efficiency of TOPCon solar panel technology make it suitable for a wide range of applications across residential, commercial, industrial, and off-grid sectors. As the technology advances and becomes more cost-effective, the adoption of TOPCon panels is expected to grow, further expanding their applications in the renewable energy landscape.

Here are some points highlighting the applications of TOPCon solar panel technology:

  • Residential solar power systems: Used in homes to generate clean and renewable energy for household consumption.
  • Commercial and industrial buildings: Integrated into rooftops or facades of commercial structures to provide sustainable energy and reduce energy costs.
  • Utility-scale solar power plants: Deployed in large-scale solar installations to generate electricity at a utility level.
  • Off-grid applications: Used in remote areas without access to the power grid to provide independent and sustainable energy solutions.
  • Solar farms and renewable energy projects: Employed in large-scale solar farms and renewable energy projects to contribute to the overall energy mix and reduce reliance on conventional power sources.
  • Electric vehicle charging stations: Integrated into charging stations to generate renewable energy for charging electric vehicles, supporting sustainable transportation infrastructure.
  • Smart cities and sustainable developments: Utilized in smart city initiatives and sustainable urban developments to power infrastructure and services with clean energy.
  • Portable and mobile applications: Suitable for portable and mobile applications, such as outdoor activities, camping, recreational vehicles (RVs), and portable charging devices.
  • Emerging applications: Continuously evolving technology with potential applications in building-integrated solutions, wearable devices, and other emerging technologies.
  • These points provide a concise overview of the various applications where TOPCon solar panel technology can be utilized.

Why Switching From Mono PERC To TOPCon Challenging For Indian PV Module Manufacturers

The switch from Mono PERC (Passivated Emitter Rear Cell) to TOPCon (Tunnel Oxide Passivated Contact) solar PV modules presents certain challenges for module manufacturers in India. Here are some reasons why these manufacturers may be facing difficulties in making this transition:

Solar Panel manufactures

Technological Adaptation: Switching from Mono PERC to TOPCon involves adapting to a new cell technology. PV module manufacturers need to invest in research, development, and training to understand the intricacies of TOPCon technology. This includes acquiring the expertise to implement different manufacturing processes, such as tunnel oxide passivation and advanced cell architectures.

Equipment Upgrades: Manufacturing equipment used for Mono PERC modules may not be fully compatible with TOPCon technology. Manufacturers may need to invest in new machinery or upgrade existing equipment to align with the specific requirements of TOPCon module production. This requires additional capital investment and can disrupt the production workflow.

Material Sourcing: The supply chain for TOPCon solar cell materials and components may not be as established or readily available in India compared to Mono PERC. Manufacturers may face challenges in sourcing high-quality silicon wafers, specialized passivation layers, and other key materials needed for TOPCon module production. Limited availability can impact production timelines and increase costs.

Certification and Standards: Introducing a new solar module technology like TOPCon may require additional certifications and compliance with industry standards. The certification process can be time-consuming and involve additional expenses. Adapting existing quality control and testing procedures to meet the specific requirements of TOPCon modules can pose challenges for manufacturers.

Cost Considerations: Switching from Mono PERC to TOPCon involves initial investment and higher production costs. Manufacturers need to carefully evaluate the cost implications and assess the market demand for TOPCon modules. If the expected benefits in terms of improved efficiency and performance do not justify the associated costs, manufacturers may hesitate to make the switch.

Market Demand and Competition: Mono PERC modules have a well-established market presence in India and are known for their cost-effectiveness. Switching to TOPCon requires convincing customers of the added value and benefits of the new technology. Manufacturers need to consider market demand, customer preferences, and competition while making the decision to switch.

Research and Development Support: The level of research and development support, as well as knowledge dissemination, may be limited for TOPCon technology in India. Manufacturers may face difficulties accessing the necessary technical support, expertise, and collaborative opportunities to optimize their TOPCon module manufacturing processes.

Market Acceptance and Consumer Awareness: The widespread adoption of Mono PERC modules in India has established consumer familiarity and trust in this technology. Introducing TOPCon modules may require educating consumers and creating awareness about the benefits and advantages of the new technology. This marketing effort can be challenging and time-consuming, as manufacturers need to convince customers to embrace the switch to TOPCon modules.

Scale-Up and Production Capacity: Scaling up the production of TOPCon modules to meet market demand can be a complex process. Manufacturers need to ensure that their production facilities are capable of accommodating the new technology and scaling up the manufacturing process efficiently. Managing the transition smoothly without compromising quality or increasing production lead times is a significant challenge.

Return on Investment (ROI) Considerations: PV module manufacturers need to carefully evaluate the return on investment when switching from Mono PERC to TOPCon technology. The benefits in terms of increased efficiency and performance need to outweigh the costs associated with the transition. A thorough cost-benefit analysis, considering factors like production costs, market demand, and projected module prices, is essential to make an informed decision.

Industry Collaboration and Support: Collaboration with research institutions, technology providers, and industry associations can help PV module manufacturers overcome the challenges of switching to TOPCon technology. Engaging in partnerships and knowledge-sharing initiatives can provide manufacturers with the necessary technical expertise, access to advanced materials, and guidance to optimize their manufacturing processes.

Policy and Government Support: Government policies and incentives play a crucial role in facilitating the transition to new solar technologies. PV module manufacturers require a supportive policy environment that encourages the adoption of advanced technologies like TOPCon. Engaging with policymakers and advocating for supportive policies can help overcome regulatory hurdles and incentivize the switch to TOPCon modules.


While TOPCon solar PV modules offer several advantages, including higher efficiency potential, manufacturers in India may face obstacles when transitioning from Mono PERC. Overcoming these challenges requires a strategic approach, collaboration with technology providers, and investments in research, development, and process optimization. As the technology matures and becomes more widely adopted, manufacturers can benefit from increased efficiency and enhanced competitiveness in the solar module market.


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